Glossary

 

You: Can a vegetarian still eat fish? What do you mean she’s pescatarian? Can he still eat eggs as a Vegan? I’m so confused!

V+A: don’t worry, it’s all here so you don’t have to be confused again 😉


– A –

Alkaline: This term is often referred to when speaking of the Alkaline diet. It is based on the fact that certain foods can affect the acidity and pH of our body, which also includes the urine and blood. Why has it become such a thing? Although the Alkaline diet is rarely recommended by health professionals due to its lack of research and evidence, certain aspects of the diet are known to help.

Amenorrhoea is the cessation of menstrual periods. There are 2 types:
Primary amenorrhoea: menstrual periods never start.
Secondary amenorrhoea: periods start and then stop. Common causes include too low body weight/fat and overexercising or polycystic ovary syndrome (cysts forming on the ovaries).

Anthropometrics: Refers to the measurement of the human individual. An early tool of physical anthropology, it has been used for identification, for the purposes of understanding human physical variation, in paleoanthropology and in various attempts to correlate physical with racial and psychological traits. Anthropometry involves the systematic measurement of the physical properties of the human body, primarily dimensions of body size and shape. Anthropometry plays an important role in nutrition, where changes in lifestyles, nutrition, and ethnic composition of populations lead to changes in the distribution of body dimensions, e.g. the obesity epidemic.

Anti-inflammatory: Substances or treatments that reduce inflammation and swelling. Certain foods like turmeric and fish oil are known to have anti-inflammatory effects.

Anti-microbial: substances that kill bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms or inhibit their growth.

Antioxidant is used for two main groups of substances: industrial chemicals used on products to prevent oxidation, and natural chemicals found in foods and body tissue which are said to have beneficial health effects and reduce the impact of free radicals in the body.

Autoimmune is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues. Autoimmune diseases refer to diseases that result from these kind of immune responses.


– B –

Beta-cerotene is an anti-oxident and the precursor to vitamin A in our bodies. Vitamin A is also important for your eye health. It’s found in red/orange coloured foods such as sweet potato, carrot…

Bioavailability: For dietary supplements, herbs and other nutrients in which the route of administration is nearly always oral. Bioavailability is used for the quantity or fraction of an ingested dose that is absorbed in the body.

Blood sugar level is the amount of glucose present in your blood. Your body automatically regulates the level of sugar (glucose) which is also known as the primary source of energy for your body.


– C –

Calcium: an essential mineral our bodies need for several functions, including the strength of your bones, blood clotting and nerve signals.

Carbohydrates: (known as “carbs”) are one of the macronutrients, along with protein and fat. They are the easiest source of energy for our bodies to use.

Cardiovascular Diseases are related to the heart or blood circulation. For example, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, angina, stroke etc.


– F –

Free Radicals: These are atoms or molecules that have unpaired/odd electrons. This means they are basically floating around on the hunt for other atoms or molecules they can steal electrons from. If they steal and electron from an important atom/molecule, like one in your DNA or cell membrane, this can cause damage and a chain reaction, damaging more atoms/molecules along the way. Antioxidants are kind of like superheroes, in that they generously donate electrons to satisfy the free radicals and save your cells from their clutches! This is why antioxidant-rich foods are so important.


– G –

Gluten is one of those overused words in food nowadays but it is sometimes misunderstood, here is why: Gluten is a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains. Grains containing gluten include wheat, barley, rye, oats* and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale). Gluten is appreciated for its viscoelastic properties as it helps give elasticity, rise and shape giving the final product a chewy texture.
*Oats are naturally gluten free, however, many are contaminated by neighbouring farms or through processing in plants/factories that also process gluten-containing grains.


– H –

Holistic is a word we use quite a lot at Vitality+Awesomeness. The reason is that we look at treating the whole person. We simply believe that everything is connected, from the body’s many systems to someone’s mental health and their social environment.


– I –

Inflammatory is used frequently in nutrition for foods that cause inflammation. Sugar, gluten and omega-6 fatty acids are amongst the ingredients that can be inflammatory to your body.

Iron: An essential mineral our bodies need as a vital part of haemoglobin, which carries oxygen around the body in our red blood cells, amongst other things. We need to get iron from our food.


– L –

Liver-detox-aiding properties: Helps your liver to do (one of) its jobs: eliminating toxins from your body.


– M –

Magnesium: A mineral essential for many processes in your body, such as maintaining normal muscle function, a healthy immune system, along with around 300 other biochemical reactions in our bodies. We need to get magnesium from our diets in foods like dark, leafy greens, almonds and dark chocolate.

Metabolism-boosting: Gives your metabolism a kickstart/rev-up.

Microbiome: The trillions of bacteria that live in and on our bodies. Those that reside in our gut/digestive system are arguably the most important. Each person’s microbiome is unique and our diet, medications and lifestyle all play a part in influencing its makeup. Our microbiome, in turn, has a huge impact on our health.


– N –

Nutrient: A substance that provides nourishment, essential for the maintenance of life and for growth.


– O –

Oestrogen: is the primary female sex hormone. You boy will look so much more clever now you have this info. welcome! It is responsible for the development and regulation of the female reproductive system.

Organic: Certification for organic foods and products varies from country to country. As a general rule, certified organic products will not have had artificial pesticides or chemicals used on them or on the soil they’re grown in. Organic animal products come from animals fed organic feed on organic farms. Organic meats come from organic animals also fed organic feed. The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is forbidden for any certified organic product (including feeding GMO crops to organic animals) and the living and treatment standards of animals are generally of a higher standard than standard or factory farming.

Oxidise: On a molecular scale, if a substance oxidises, it loses one or more electrons. This can be a good thing sometimes and a bad thing other times. When you use hydrogen peroxide in a cleaning product, the oxidation that’s going on is a good thing. Most of the time, however, when oxidation is happening in your body, it’s because a substance called a “Free Radical” is stealing electrons from other molecules in your body, which causes damage to them. Antioxidants can help stop this damage. This is why it’s important to get antioxidant-rich foods in your diet. Fats and oils can oxidise also, this can turn them into trans fats, which are really bad for your health.


– P –

Paleo(lithic) diet (commonly known as caveman diet or stone-age diet) has several interpretations. The diet is based on avoiding not just modern processed foods, but rather the foods that humans began eating after the Neolithic Revolution when humans transitioned from hunter-gatherer lifestyles to settled agriculture. The ideas behind the diet can be traced to Walter Voegtlin, and have been popularized more recently in the best-selling books of Loren Cordain. The diet generally includes vegetables, fruits, nuts, roots, meat, and organ meats while excluding foods such as dairy products, grains, sugar, legumes, processed oils, salt, and alcohol or coffee. Like other fad diets, the Paleo diet is promoted as a way of improving health. Limited data exist on the metabolic effects on humans eating the diet, though the available data suggest following this diet may lead to improvements in terms of body composition and metabolic effects as compared to the typical Western diet. Following the Paleo diet can lead to an inadequate calcium intake but if adequate calcium-rich foods are consumed (like dark leafy greens, almonds and sardines), this can be avoided.

Pescetariansim or Pesco-Vegetarianism is the diet of Vegetarianism (see below) with the inclusion of fish and/or other seafood but not the flesh of other animals.

pH measurements are important in nutrition. It is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity/alkalinity of a substance.

Piperine is a compound (an alkaloid), which gives black pepper its pungency. It has the added bonus of increasing the bioavailability of other compounds found in our food. The most mentioned here on Vitality+Awesomeness is that of turmeric, where piperine increases the bioavailability of curcumin by 2000%!

Potassium is an essential mineral our bodies need for many functions, including the regulation of our heart beat. We need to get potassium from our food, the best sources are fresh fruit and vegetables!

Pesceterianism (also spelled pescatarianism) also known as Pesco-Vegetarianism is the practice of following a diet that includes fish or/and other seafood. People following this practice  do not at the flesh of other animals. Most pescetarians maintain a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet with the addition of fish and shellfish.

Protein is a general term for amino acids, peptides, and one of the three macronutrients you probably hear a lot about, along with carbohydrates and fats.


– R –

Raw food diet is the practice of eating uncooked (not heated above 45C), unprocessed, unpasteurised, unhomogenised food. A raw diet still includes raw meat and fish, vegetables, fruits, milk and eggs. It may also include fermented foods like cheese, yogurts, kefir, kombucha or sauerkraut.


– T –

Tryptophan is an amino acid our bodies use to produce melatonin, our sleep hormone. Examples of tryptophan-rich foods are bananas, turkey and almonds.


– V –

Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products in your diet. So no eggs, no meat, no milk oh and no honey either! Its philosophy also rejects the commodity status of animals. Veganism focuses on a “Plant based diet”.A follower of either the vegan diet or the philosophy is known as a veganVeganism has become more popular the recent years with Vevolution being the biggest live event to date held in Europe in early Nov 2016, Veganuary which is about going vegan for a full month every January.

Vegetarianism is one word we couldn’t wait to clarify, simply because if you’re vegetarian you avoid consumption of meat AND FISH and the flesh of any other animal. Most vegetarian won’t eat by-products of animal slaughter either. For example, If you don’t eat chicken, you won’t be considering a chicken broth.

Questions?

Vitality+Awesomeness Team x